Classification of Transcarpathian castles


For the first time, defense structures appeared in the Transcarpathian region in the bronze age. Then they were settlements surrounded by earthen ramparts and ditches (Ardanivske, Stremtura (Irshava), Galish-Lovachka (Mukachevo), Borzhavskoe (Vary). The best type of defense structures of the middle ages in Transcarpathia are castles of the XI-XVIII centuries.

Researchers distinguish two types of fortresses. The first was intended for overseeing the surrounding lands and receiving tribute from them, as well as for constant attacks.Mukachevsky, Kwasowski, Bronetsky, Nevitsky locks. The second type is a castle-guard of subordinate territories:Uzhgorodskiy, Vinogradovsky, Royal, Chinadievskaya, Strednansky.

There are also regular and irregular castles that were used only during the war.

Sometimes the fortresses grew in an architectural ensemble with the city, like the Royal, Uzhhorod, Vinogradovsky, and sometimes they remained Autonomous knight fortifications, like Kvasovsky and Bronetsky.

Until the XII century, all the fortresses in the Hungarian Kingdom, which at that time included Transcarpathia, belonged only to the king. But with the development of feudal relations, the nobles inherited large land holdings. At the same time, there was a need to build castles to protect large land holdings. So there are administrative and territorial centers, inside which the citadel was located, withstood the constant waves of endless internecine strife.

All the fortresses and castles of the Silver land, except for Serednyansky and Chinadievsky, are built on high ground. They were rebuilt very often, and traces of different eras can be found in each of them. Therefore, they can trace the history of castle construction as in the context of different eras at the same time.


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